The usual organisation of control panels is seriously messed up on Windows 10. Where there used to be a control panel for Printers and other devices in Windows 7, which would show any USB game controllers, now the Devices control panel is virtually useless. To get to the Devices and Printers dialog, you have to scroll to the bottom of the Bluetooth and other devices dialog and then click on Devices and printers link under Related settings.
Nice move Micro$oft, adding more clicks to achieve the same thing. What wizards you are!
There is a Game Controller dialog, but it is unclear where it is organised under. It can be found by searching for “controllers”… Once you have found this dialog then click on the Properties button
and then, in the properties dialog, click on the Test tab, and you will see a testing UI.
If you can find the Printers and Scanners control panel
then right click on the game controller and select Game Controller settings.
Addendum for Linux
For Linux, use:
sudo apt-get install jstest-gtk jstest-gtk